In order to arrive at the result, accelerometers were attached on the waists of 3,974 healthy men and women by the researchers. This was done for over seven nights in order to examine the duration and the quality of the sleep.
While it is very important to sleep, a new study, published in Journal of the American College of Cardiology, has revealed that sleeping less than six hours during the night or even sleeping poorly can lead to heart disease. In order to arrive at the result, accelerometers were attached to the waists of 3,974 healthy men and women by the researchers. This was done for over seven nights in order to examine the duration and the quality of the sleep.
According to the report in The New York Times that quotes this study, all these men and women underwent the three-dimensional ultrasound that keeps a check on the blood flow through the blood vessels, and other physical exams. Factors like diabetes, smoking, fasting glucose and cholesterol were controlled and it was deduced that those who slept for less than six hours were 27 per cent more vulnerable to suffer from heart problems. Those who slept fitfully or moved a bit are also more susceptible to have more accumulations of plaque as compared to those who slept soundly.
“We’re detecting disease in its earliest stages in apparently healthy young people,” Dr Valentin Fuster, co-author and director of the Mount Sinai Heart Center said. “This is something that was done only at autopsy until now. This is an alarm system, telling you that there is another cardiovascular risk factor you should pay attention to.”
Courtesy - Indian Express
Here are some quick, easy-to-make, tasty snacks that won’t cause you to pack on the pounds.
There are times when our body behaves rather funnily – it craves for food right before bedtime. Most people end up indulging themselves, even if they know that the idea of a late night snack is not good news for their waistline. As a cure to your hunger pangs, here are some foods that can tuck all your worries away.
Easy to make, filling and full of crunch, this light weight snack is the best thing to toss in your mouth to calm your hunger pangs.
A fistful of these nuts are enough to fill your grumbling stomach in the middle of the night. Packed with good carbs and proteins, pistachios are a great choice for a light night snack.
If you’re in the mood for something plain and light, pick up a bowl of yogurt. You can top it with some nuts, granola or cereals for that extra crunch. Apparently, yogurt, which is a good source of protein is also a sleep inducer.
Easy to find, cheap, and a fruit that (maybe) no one hates, bananas make for a healthy option if you are hungry and pining for some food. You can churn it into a banana smoothie or whip up a banana shake (with little or no sugar) if you are willing to make that effort.
Whole grain crackers
Whole grain crackers are easily available in the market these days. These crispy snacks topped with some cheese or fruit preserve can be tweaked to savoury or sweet options, as one may like.
Mixed with curd or milk, it is an option that not only makes for a great breakfast snack but also is a great midnight snack. Filling, and full of nutrition, it is also something that is very easy to put together.
So, what are you going to pick next time you’re hit by hunger pangs in the middle of the night?
Courtesy - Indian Express
Experiencing feelings of depression, anxiety or irritability following what is otherwise a satisfactory intercourse, is termed as ‘Postcoital Dysphoria’. Read on to know more.
The obsession with sex and everything related to it is a cause of concern. While sex addiction has become easier to talk about behind closed doors, during therapy sessions, post-sex blues are yet to be identified as a problem, at least on a larger scale. Probably, because most people are not aware of it themselves. Feeling sad, depressed and finding yourself in tears after sex is a real health issue and there is a term for it: ‘Postcoital Dysphoria’.
Recently, a study estimating the prevalence of PCD in men was published in the Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. The Australian research team surveyed more than 1,200 men with an online questionnaire and found that almost 41% men experienced PCD at some point and 20% felt it in the last four weeks. As many as 4% said they had PCD on a regular basis. “Results indicate that the male experience of the resolution phase may be far more varied, complex, and nuanced than previously thought,” the authors wrote.
It usually lasts up to two hours post-coitus and may cause the person experiencing it to avoid or become abusive towards their partner(s). “The reasons for Postcoital Dysphoria may vary – from a person’s attitude towards sex, relationship with the partner, prevalent social and cultural factors.
“Anxiety over being susceptible to Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), etc”, says Dr Kedar Tilwe, a psychiatrist, sexologist and geriatric psychiatrist at Hiranandani Hospital, Vashi – A Fortis Network Hospital.
Postcoital Dysphoria occurs despite enjoying a satisfactory sexual intercourse. However, it is more frequent following casual or clandestine relationships. One needs to understand their feelings and experiences, as well as re-examine their beliefs, attitudes and expectations towards intercourse.
“It is important to remember that Postcoital Dysphoria is more emotional than physiological. However, if it persists for a longer time, formal therapy may help. In clinical practice this is a fairly common presentation. It can occur in both sexes, however it seems to be more prevalent amongst men”, Dr Tilwe adds.
Courtesy - Indian Express
Courtesy - Indian Express
A big tummy with thin thighs is equal to high risk of diabetes and a slim tummy with big thighs is equal to low risk of diabetes. Sir Ganga Ram Hospital has come out with a new study that can help predict diabetes. Find out more here.
According to International Diabetes Federation, there were over 72 million cases of diabetes in India in 2017. The number of Indians suffering from this malicious disease is expected to cross the 100 million mark by 2030. A large part of this epidemic spreading so rampantly can be attributed to the rising obesity.
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital along with Motilal Nehru Medical College of Allahabad, has recently discovered a “simple and cost-effective screening tool” to identify people at high risk of Type 2 diabetes.
According to the study, “Big tummy with thin thighs is equal to high risk of diabetes and slim tummy with big thighs is equal to low risk of diabetes.”
Why do big thighs protect one from diabetes and not a big tummy?
The fat on the thighs called the subcutaneous fat sits under the skin and is not very harmful. On the other hand, a big tummy means one has visceral fat that surrounds the organs. It is a “deep-rooted” fat that changes that way the body functions.
“If two people are overweight, the one having subcutaneous fat is less likely to have diabetes than the one with visceral fat,” says Dr Tejal Lathia, consultant, endocrinologist, Hiranandani Hospital Vashi. However, it does not mean that a person with subcutaneous fat storage cannot develop diabetes, she added.
When should you get checked for diabetes?
People over 40 years of age should get checked for the disease. Those who are younger are likely to develop it if they have a family history of diabetes, are overweight, have a sedentary lifestyle or suffer from hypertension. The other signs to watch out for are:
* If the Body Mass Index (BMI) is more than 23, one is likely to get diabetes.
* A person having a history of gestational diabetes, which means that a pregnant woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar during her carrying period, is a sign of diabetes.
* Giving birth to a baby weighing more than four kilos is also a sign, according to Dr Monika Sharma, Consultant, Endocrinology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Delhi.
What difference has the study made?
The study has made it easier to predict who can or cannot develop diabetes in the future. Dr Atul Gogia, co-author and senior consultant, Department of Medicine, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, said: “Our study found that diabetics had significantly greater waist circumference than non-diabetics. Also, diabetics had lesser thigh circumference than non-diabetics.
“We found Waist Thigh Ratio (WTR) of 2.3 as a cut-off point as a predictor of diabetes. Simply put, a person having Waist Thigh Ratio (WTR) less than 2.3 will be at low risk of diabetes and may not require further investigation.”
The waist circumference is often used as a parameter for diagnosing diabetes. Dr V Mohan, who is the chairman and Chief of Diabetology at Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Noncommunicable Diseases Prevention, uses a scoring system which screens the patient’s weight, family history, age and waist circumference.
Why are Indians more prone to have diabetes?
A carb-heavy diet with little protein and high sugar content makes Indians more likely to have diabetes.
The study has made it easier to predict diabetes effectively and inexpensively and this screening can help in further treating the disease.
Adding a daily serving of green, leafy vegetables to your diet may be a simple way to foster your brain health. In people who ate the most of green, leafy vegetables brain ageing slowed by 11 years.
Eating one to two servings of salad with spinach, lettuce and kale daily may keep your brain 11 years younger as well as prevent dementia, according to a study.
The study found that people who ate at least one serving of green, leafy vegetables a day had a slower rate of decline on tests of memory and thinking skills than people who never or rarely ate these vegetables.
In people who ate the most of green, leafy vegetables brain ageing slowed by 11 years.
“Adding a daily serving of green, leafy vegetables to your diet may be a simple way to foster your brain health,” said Martha Clare Morris, from the Rush University in Chicago.
“Projections show sharp increases in the percentage of people with dementia as the oldest age groups continue to grow in number, so effective strategies to prevent dementia are critical,” Morris added.
The study, published in the journal Neurology, involved 960 people with an average age of 81 who did not have dementia and were followed for an average of 4.7 years.
Over 10 years of follow-up, the rate of decline for those who ate the most leafy greens was slower by 0.05 standardised units per year than the rate for those who ate the least leafy greens. This difference was equivalent to being 11 years younger in age.
The results remained valid after accounting for other factors that could affect brain health such as smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, education level and amount of physical and cognitive activities, the researchers said.
Courtesy - Indian Express
In order to restrict the spread of diseases such as Zika and dengue, researchers have developed a platform that can analyse clinical samples from patients to diagnose infection by 416 viruses found in the world's tropical regions.
In addition to the pathogens, the platform detects others that as yet have been identified only sporadically but could become epidemics.
Examples include Mayaro, an alphavirus related to chikungunya that is transmitted by wild mosquitoes such as Haemagogus janthinomys.
"The number of patients with suspected dengue, Zika or chikungunya infection will increase when summer arrives," said Victor Hugo Aquino, professor at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in Brazil.
"Conventional methods are frequently unable to confirm diagnosis of these diseases, so we don't know which viruses are circulating," said Aquino.
In his view, if a tool like this had been available when Zika began circulating in Brazil, it might have been possible to restrict its spread to the initial outbreak location.
"We took a long time to realise an epidemic was under way because no one was thinking of Zika at the time," he said.
"There are several other viruses that have not yet caused problems in humans but may do so one day," Aquino said.
"They are evolving all the time, and with the degradation of natural environments infectious agents once confined to natural niches could spread farther afield," added Aquino.
Although the platform is designed above all to detect pathogens transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks, it can also diagnose infectious agents transmitted by small mammals, like hantavirus.
Aquino explained that the selection encompasses all viruses occurring in tropical regions with DNA sequences deposited in GenBank, a public database maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM).
The platform consists of a DNA microarray slide with eight identical sub-arrays containing viral probes replicated at least three times to complete the array with 15,000 probes.
Each probe contains the sequences for 60 nucleotides that are complementary to the genomes of the viruses to be detected.
According to Aquino, the sequences were mounted on the basis of information from GenBank using bioinformatics.
"If a blood sample contains one of the 416 viruses included on the microchip, the pathogen's genome will bind with one of the probes to produce a marker that can be detected by a scanner," Aquino said.
The device that reads the results is the same as that used in microarray assays for the analysis of gene expression.
The validation tests do not point to cross-hybridisation, which produces a positive result for more than one infectious agent and hinders correct identification of single viruses.
The study was published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
Children delivered by cesarean section have 40 per cent greater odds of becoming overweight or obese in childhood compared to those born vaginally, according to a new research. This association was even greater if their mother was overweight or obese, suggesting that among obese mothers vaginal delivery may help reduce the intergenerational association of obesity, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins University in the US.
This finding held even after accounting for the mother's age at the time of delivery, race, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index, pregnancy weight gain, air pollution exposure and the child's birth weight.
The researchers noted that having an overweight mother is often associated with overweight or obese children, regardless of how the child is born, but the effect was stronger among women who delivered through cesarean section. "We think that the reason for the difference may be due to the beneficial microbes found in the birth canal that newborns are exposed to during a vaginal birth," said lead author Noel Mueller, assistant professor at Johns Hopkins University.
"We suspect that these microbes may benefit a child's health, including enhancing metabolism and training the immune system," said Mueller. Researchers analysed data on 1,441 full-term deliveries from the Boston Birth Cohort.
Among the study group, 57 per cent of the women who gave birth by Cesarean were obese, and 53 per cent of those who delivered vaginally were obese. Children ranged from ages two to eight at the time of outcome measurement.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
People who sleep five or fewer hours a night are likely to drink significantly more sugary caffeinated beverages, such as sodas and energy drinks, according to a new study.
"We think there may be a positive feedback loop where sugary drinks and sleep loss reinforce one another, making it harder for people to eliminate their unhealthy sugar habit," said lead author Aric A Prather, assistant professor at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) in the US.
"This data suggests that improving people's sleep could potentially help them break out of the cycle and cut down on their sugar intake, which we know to be linked to metabolic disease," said Prather.
A growing body of research has linked sugary beverage consumption to metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions including high blood sugar and excess body fat, which can lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Lack of sleep is also associated with a higher risk for metabolic disease.
Recently, several studies have linked the two factors in school-age children, showing that children who get less sleep are more likely to drink soda and other sugary beverages during the day, said Prather.
To understand whether this is a more general pattern in the adult population, Prather and his team analysed the 2005-2012 records of 18,779 participants in the US National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES).
The researchers found that people who regularly slept five or fewer hours per night also drank 21 per cent more caffeinated sugar-sweetened beverages - including both sodas and non-carbonated energy drinks - than those who slept seven to eight hours a night.
People who slept six hours per night regularly consumed 11 per cent more caffeinated sugar-sweetened beverages. On the other hand, the team found no association between sleep duration and consumption of juice, tea or diet drinks.
Prather noted that previous research has strongly indicated that sleep deprivation increases hunger, particularly hunger for sugary and fatty foods.
"Short sleepers may seek out caffeinated sugar-sweetened beverages to increase alertness and stave off daytime sleepiness," he said.
"However, it is not clear whether drinking such beverages affects sleep patterns, or if people who do not sleep much are more driven to consume them. Unfortunately, the data in the current study do not allow us to draw any conclusions about cause and effect," he added. The study appears in the journal Sleep Health.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
Higher levels of iron in pregnant women may lead to an increased risk of gestational diabetes, a new study has warned.
The study by researchers from US National Institutes of Health (NIH) also raises questions about routine recommendations on iron supplementation in pregnancy.
Iron is regarded as a double-edged sword in living systems, as both its deficiency and excess can be harmful, researchers said.
While many guidelines recommend screening and treatment only as necessary for iron deficiency, several other groups such as the World Health Organisation (WHO recommend routine iron supplementation among pregnant women.
Emerging evidence has pointed to a possible link between higher iron stores and abnormal blood sugar control (including type 2 diabetes) in non-pregnant individuals.
Researchers did a case-control study of 107 gestational diabetes (GDM) cases and 214 controls (matched on age, gestational week of blood collection and race/ethnicity).
They looked at several biomarkers of iron status, including plasma hepcidin, ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and these data were used to calculate the sTfR:ferritin ratio, which captures both cellular iron need and availability of body iron stores.
These markers were longitudinally measured or calculated four times during pregnancy, twice before GDM diagnosis (gestational weeks 10-14 and 15-26), and twice afterwards (gestational weeks 23-31 and 33-39).
GDM diagnosis was ascertained from medical records based on oral glucose tolerance test results.
Statistical modelling was then used to calculate the odds ratio of GDM with iron status, accounting for factors such as demographics, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and other major risk factors.
Researchers found that for both hepcidin and ferritin, in the second trimester of pregnancy, those in the top 25 per cent of levels of these markers had around a 2.5 times increased subsequent risk of developing GDM compared with those in the bottom 25 per cent.
Similar findings were observed for ferritin levels in the first trimester. Describing the findings as biologically plausible, researchers offer various potential explanations.
Iron may play a role in the development of GDM through several potential mechanisms. As a strong pro-oxidant, free iron can promote several cellular reactions that generate reactive oxygen species and increase the level of oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress induced from excess iron accumulation can cause damage to and death of pancreatic beta cells which produce insulin and consequently, contribute to impaired insulin synthesis and secretion.The study was published in the journal Diabetologia.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
Sleep deprivation may make you munch on more calories the following day, potentially leading to weight gain and obesity, a new study has found.
The study found that sleep-deprived people consumed an average of 385 kilocalories per day extra, which is equivalent to the calories of about four and a half slices of bread.
The study, led by researchers at King's College London, combined the results of 11 studies with a total of 172 participants.
The analysis included studies that compared a partial sleep restriction intervention with an unrestricted sleep control and measured the individuals' energy intake over the next 24 hours.
They found partial sleep deprivation did not have a significant effect on how much energy people expended in the subsequent 24 hours. Therefore, participants had a net energy gain of 385 calories per day.
The researchers also found there was a small shift in what sleep deprived people ate - they had higher fat and lower protein intakes, but no change in carbohydrate intake.
"The main cause of obesity is an imbalance between calorie intake and expenditure and this study adds to accumulating evidence that sleep deprivation could contribute to this imbalance," said Gerda Pot, from King's College London.
"So there may be some truth in the saying 'early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy and wise'," Pot said.
"This study found that partial sleep deprivation resulted in a large net increased energy intake of 385 kcal per day," she said.
"If long-term sleep deprivation continues to result in an increased calorie intake of this magnitude, it may contribute to weight gain," she added.
"Our results highlight sleep as a potential third factor, in addition to diet and exercise, to target weight gain more effectively," Haya Al Khatib, PhD candidate at King's College London.
The study was published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald