The process of posting pictures is particularly time-consuming and can be a joint endeavour among chums -- ensuring that only the most flattering photos, filters and captions are selected. Boys in the study did not ask pals for feedback or to like their posts.
Teenagers use social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram to appear attractive and popular among friends, and for that they make a careful selection of photos, activities and links that they share, a new study says.
They work very hard to create a favourable online image, showed the findings published in the Journal of Research on Adolescence.
According to the researchers, content that makes them appear interesting, well-liked and attractive to their friends and peers is a primary goal for adolescents when deciding what to share in digital spaces.
“Teenagers aren’t just posting carelessly; they’re surprisingly thoughtful about what they choose to reveal on social media,” said lead author of the study Joanna Yau from the University of California, Irvine.
“Peer approval is important during adolescence, especially in early adolescence, so they’re sharing content that they think others will find impressive,” Yau added.
Facebook and Instagram provide opportunities for young people to connect and communicate with friends as well as people they know in person but are not necessarily close to, such as classmates.
These social media channels allow individuals time to craft and edit posts and, unlike offline situations, offer teenagers the chance to consider — even strategise about — how they want to present themselves online.
The study involved a group of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18.
The researchers found that for girls, the effort to construct a favourable image can involve lengthy deliberation and advice from confidantes.
The process of posting pictures is particularly time-consuming and can be a joint endeavour among chums — ensuring that only the most flattering photos, filters and captions are selected. Boys in the study did not ask pals for feedback or to like their posts.
“We found that some teens invested great effort into sharing content on Facebook and Instagram and that what may seem to be an enjoyable activity may actually feel tedious,” Yau said.
Courtesy - Indian Express
Experts say sustainable weight loss can protect patients from disease directly associated with morbid obesity such as type 2 diabetes.
Obese people who get bariatric surgery are less likely to require medication to control diabetes symptoms afterward, compared to those who don’t get operations to lose weight, a French study suggests.
Researchers examined data on 15,650 obese patients who had weight-loss surgery in France in 2009, including 1,633 people who were on medications to help control diabetes at the time. The surgery recipients were compared to an equal number of similar obese patients who were hospitalized that year but didn’t get bariatric surgery.
Six years later, half of the people who started out on diabetes medication and got bariatric surgery were no longer taking these drugs, compared to 9 percent in the control group that didn’t have the surgery, researchers report in JAMA Surgery.
“We can hypothesize that sustainable weight loss can protect patients from disease directly associated with morbid obesity such as type 2 diabetes, which is a serious chronic disease that has become more prevalent all around the world,” said lead study author Dr. Jeremie Thereaux of La Cavale Blanche University Hospital and the University of Bretagne Occidentale in Brest, France.
“Bariatric surgery should be considered as an effective treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients suffering from morbid obesity,” Thereaux said. “However, bariatric surgery is not actually recommended in the U.S. and in Europe as a treatment of type 2 diabetes in less-obese patients, and our study cannot scientifically support this idea.”
Surgical weight loss has gained traction in recent years as a growing number of extremely obese patients turn to this option after failing to lose weight through diet, exercise or medication - strategies that can also manage diabetes. Like all surgery, bariatric operations are not risk free; with these procedures there’s a possibility of malnutrition and repeat operations to adjust, replace or remove a device implanted to aid weight loss.
Among people taking diabetes drugs at the start of the study, the biggest impact on diabetes remission was seen with gastric bypass, which can reduce the size of the stomach from about three pints to roughly the size of a shot glass.
Compared to people who didn’t get weight-loss surgery, patients who had gastric bypass were more than 17 times more likely to discontinue diabetes medications by the end of the study.
With a different weight-loss operation known as a sleeve gastrectomy, which reduces the stomach to the size of a banana, people were more than 7 times more likely to discontinue their diabetes drugs without surgery.
A third type of weight-loss surgery, adjustable gastric banding, which inserts an inflatable silicone device around the top portion of the stomach to help slow and reduce food consumption, was associated with more than four times the likelihood of discontinuing diabetes drugs.
With surgery, people who didn’t take diabetes medications at the start of the study were also less likely to start taking them during the follow-up period. By the end of the study, 1.4 percent of people who got bariatric surgery started taking diabetes drugs, compared with 12 percent of the control group.
The study wasn’t a controlled experiment designed to prove whether or how weight-loss surgery might help people control diabetes symptoms or reduce the need for diabetes medications. Researchers also lacked data on the amount of weight loss and how long people had been living with diabetes, both of which can independently influence whether patients need medications.
Even so, the results add to evidence that surgical weight loss may help manage diabetes, said Dr. Michel Gagner, author of an accompanying editorial and a professor of surgery at the Herbert Wertheim School of Medicine at Florida International University in Miami.
In some parts of the world, weight loss surgery is commonly done to treat diabetes, Gagner said by email.
“In fact, even patients that are non-obese but have type 2 diabetes can get these operations,” Gagner added. “Having no more diabetes is a big thing, as diabetes attacks small blood vessels and leads to blindness, renal failure on dialysis or need for renal transplant, heart attacks and amputation of limbs.”
Courtesy - Deccan Hearald
Reduced immediate memory scores at the second visit were significantly associated with the number of operations in the preceding nine years. Working memory decline was associated with longer cumulative operations, researchers said.
Patients may score slightly lower on certain memory tests after undergoing surgery, a study suggests.
The study published in the journal Anaesthesia involved 312 participants who had surgery and 652 participants who had not (with an average age in the 50s).
Surgery between tests was associated with a decline in immediate memory by one point out of a possible maximum test score of 30 points, researchers said.
Memory became abnormal in 77 out of 670 participants with initially normal memory comprising 18 per cent of those who had had surgery compared with 10 per cent of those who had not, they said.
“The cognitive changes we report are highly statistically significant in view of the internal normative standards we employ, and the large sample size of the control, or non-surgery, population,” said Kirk Hogan from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US.
“However, the cognitive changes after surgery are small – most probably asymptomatic and beneath a person’s awareness,” said Hogan.
No differences in other measures of memory and executive function were observed between participants having and not having surgery.
Reduced immediate memory scores at the second visit were significantly associated with the number of operations in the preceding nine years.
Working memory decline was associated with longer cumulative operations, researchers said.
“The results await confirmation both in follow-up investigations in our own population sample after more surgeries in aging participants, and by other investigators with other population samples,” said Hogan.
He noted that it is too early to recommend any changes in clinical practice regarding prevention, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of cognitive changes after surgery.
Courtesy - Indian Express
A study suggests that there might be something about helping strangers that impacts one's moral identity or perceptions of self in a more significant way than helping friends or family members, although these are beneficial behaviours as well
Lending a helping hand to strangers can help teenagers improve self esteem and boost confidence, suggests new research. While adolescents who exhibited pro-social behaviour — such as helping, sharing and comforting — towards strangers had higher self-esteem a year later, the same was not true for those in the study who exhibited pro-social behaviour solely to friends and family, found the research published in the Journal of Adolescence.
“This study helps us to understand that young people who help those with whom they do not have a relationship report feeling better about themselves over time,” said study co-author Laura Padilla-Walker, Professor at Brigham Young University in the US.
“Given the importance of self-esteem during the teen years, this is an important finding. It suggests there might be something about helping strangers that impacts one’s moral identity or perceptions of self in a more significant way than helping friends or family members, although these are beneficial behaviours as well,” Padilla-Walker said.
In the study, researchers looked at 681 adolescents, 11-14 years old, in two US cities. The participants responded to 10 statements such as “I feel useless at times” or “I am satisfied with myself” to assess self-esteem. “Not all helping is created equal, and we’re finding that pro-social behaviour toward strangers is protective in a variety of ways that is unique from other types of helping,” Padilla-Walker said.
Another important finding was that the link between pro-social behaviour and self-esteem was over a one-year time period and present across all three age lags in the study.
Courtesy - Indian Express
Researchers have identified a gene variant that suppresses the desire to drink alcohol, an advance that could lead to development of drugs to regulate alcohol consumption.
The findings are based on the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication study to date, mapping and comparing the genetics of over 105,000 light and heavy social drinkers, researchers said.
"The study identified a variation in the beta-Klotho gene linked to the regulation of social alcohol consumption. The less frequent variant – seen in approximately 40 per cent of the people in this study – is associated with a decreased desire to drink alcohol," said Dr David Mangelsdorf, from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre in the US.
"Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem worldwide, causing more than 3 million deaths per year," said Steven Kliewer, a Professor at UT Southwestern Medical Center.
Researchers worked on beta-Klotho and the liver hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) that binds to the beta-Klotho-FGF21 receptor complex.
They conducted experiments in mice to better understand the role of beta-Klotho in alcohol drinking behaviour.
The beta-Klotho gene directs the production of the beta-Klotho protein that forms part of a receptor complex in the brain.
The study could lead to development of drugs to regulate alcohol consumption – possibly even in those with drinking problems, researchers said.
A shift from heavy to moderate social drinking could have major public health benefits, such as reduced cardiovascular disease risk, they said.
The study compared the genetics of light and heavy social drinkers of European ancestry participating in nearly four dozen other large population studies worldwide.
In addition to providing samples for genetic analysis, the participants answered questionnaires on their weekly drinking habits.
Heavy drinking was defined as more than 21 drinks per week for men and over 14 drinks per week for women. Light drinking was considered to be 14 drinks or less per week for men and seven drinks or less per week for women.
The beta-Klotho gene codes for the protein beta-Klotho, which forms a receptor complex in the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) with classic receptors for FGF21, a hormone produced in the liver.
"The gene in the current study seems to work via a feedback circuit that goes from the liver, which processes alcohol, to the brain, where beta-Klotho and classic FGF21 receptors form a cellular machine, or receptor complex, which binds to the liver hormone FGF21 to signal the response to alcohol," Mangelsdorf said.
The less common gene variant identified in this study is related to a decreased desire for alcohol. So, people who have this variant tend to drink less than those without it, he said.
The study was published in the journal PNAS.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
Data gathered from lightning strikes can help precisely forecast storms, a new study has found. The study presents a new way to transform lightning strikes into weather-relevant information. The US National Weather Service has begun to use lightning in its most sophisticated forecasts, researchers said.
This method, however, is more general and could be used in a wide variety of forecasting systems, anywhere in the world, they said. "When you see lots of lightning you know where the convection, or heat-driven upward motion, is the strongest, and that is where the storm is the most intense," said Robert Holzworth, professor at University of Washington in the US.
"Almost all lightning occurs in clouds that have ice, and where there's a strong updraft," said Holzworth. Researchers tested their method on two cases: the summer 2012 derecho thunderstorm system that swept across the US and a 2013 tornado that killed several people in the Midwest.
"Using lightning data to modify the air moisture was enough to dramatically improve the short-term forecast for a strong rain, wind and storm event," said Ken Dixon, a former UW graduate student who now works for The Weather Company.
The simple method might also improve medium-range forecasts, for more than a few days out, in parts of the world that have little or no ground-level observations. The study used data from the UW-based WorldWide Lightning Location Network, which has a global record of lightning strikes going back to 2004.
Researchers use lightning to improve forecasts for convective storms, the big storms that produce thunderstorms and tornadoes. Apart from ground stations, weather forecasts are heavily dependent on weather satellites for information to start or "initialise" the numerical weather prediction models that are the foundation of modern weather prediction.
What is missing is accurate, real-time information about air moisture content, temperature and wind speed in places where there are no ground stations. "We have less skill for thunderstorms than for almost any other meteorological phenomenon. The results show that lightning data has potential to improve high-resolution forecasts of thunderstorms and convection," said Cliff Mass, professor at UW.
The new method could be helpful in forecasting storms over the ocean, where no ground instruments exist. Better knowledge of lightning-heavy tropical ocean storms could also improve weather forecasts far from the equator, Mass said, since many global weather systems originate in the tropics. The study was published in the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
Sixty per cent of the 5.9 million children under five who died last year were in just 10 countries in Africa and Asia, an evaluation of global infant health revealed today.
Pneumonia was the leading killer in five of them, all in Africa: Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Tanzania, said a study published in The Lancet medical journal.
In Bangladesh, Indonesia, India and Pakistan, the main cause of death was preterm birth complications -- also the global leader -- while in China birth defects claimed most of the children who never made their fifth birthday.
"Accelerated investment in child survival is imperative," to meet the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the authors wrote.
These targets include an under-five mortality rate of no more than 25 per 1,000 births in every country by 2030.
The worst-performing countries today lose more than 90 children under five per 1,000 live births, said the researchers, citing including Angola, Central African Republic, Chad, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Somalia.
The team recommended "the uptake of breastfeeding, providing vaccines for pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea, and improving water and sanitation," to prevent child deaths in the worst-afflicted nations of the world.
In countries with low death rates such as the United States and Russia with fewer than 10 per 1,000 births, the causes were very different -- mainly birth defects, complications from preterm delivery, and injuries such as stove burns, car accidents or drowning.
The study said nearly half -- 2.7 million -- of the 5.9 million children lost last year died within their first 28 days.
The research was funded by the UN's World Health Organization and the Bill & Melinda Gates philanthropic organisation.
Globally, four million fewer under-five children died in 2015 than in 2000, the researchers found.
This represented a 53-percent decline -- short of the two-thirds reduction target for 1990-2015 set in the Millennium Development Goals which preceded the SDGs.
The slowest progress, said the new study, was in reducing newborn deaths.
"Child survival has improved substantially since the Millennium Development Goals were set," the study's lead author Li Liu of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health said.
"The problem is that this progress is uneven across all countries, meaning a high child death rate persists in many countries."
In a comment on the study, also published by The Lancet, Peter Byass of the Umea Centre for Global Research in Sweden said it was an indictment that researchers had to rely on estimates and not real, recorded numbers.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
Smoking cigarettes may shorten the lifespan of people living with HIV more than the deadly virus itself, scientists including one of Indian origin have found.
The study suggests that making smoking cessation a priority and finding effective ways to help people with HIV quit can significantly improve their lifespan.
"Now that HIV-specific medicines are so effective against the virus itself, we also need to add other interventions that could improve and extend the lives of people with HIV," said Krishna P Reddy, of Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
Smoking is especially dangerous for people living with HIV, putting them at high risk for heart disease, cancer, serious lung diseases and other infections.
Researchers used a computer simulation of HIV disease and treatment to project the life expectancy of people living with HIV based on their smoking status.
For men and women with HIV who adhere well to HIV medicines, the study found that smoking reduces life expectancy by about twice as much as HIV.
The study also accounts for higher rates of non-adherence to HIV drug regimens and lower retention in care, making the latest findings especially relevant for health care providers and patients in this country.
Even when accounting for typical rates of treatment non-adherence and missed follow-up care, the study found that for men with HIV, the life expectancy loss associated with smoking was similar to that from HIV.
"It is well-known that smoking is bad for health, but we demonstrate in this study just how bad it is," Reddy said.
"We actually quantify the risk, and I think providing those numbers to patients can help put their own risks from smoking in perspective," he said.
"A person with HIV who consistently takes HIV medicines but smokes is much more likely to die of a smoking-related disease than of HIV itself," he added.
For example, men and women entering care for HIV at age 40 who continued to smoke lost 6.7 and 6.3 years of life expectancy, respectively, compared with people with HIV who never smoked, according to the modelling study.
If they quit smoking at age 40, they regained 5.7 and 4.6 years of life expectancy, respectively.
"We show that even people who have been smoking till age 60 but quit at age 60 have a substantial increase in their life expectancy compared to those who continue to smoke," Reddy said.
The findings suggest that smoking cessation should be a major focus of health providers who care for people living with HIV and incorporated into existing care programs and treatment guidelines, researchers said.
The study was published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald
It is not just our skin that starts to lose its youthful firmness and elasticity as we age, but our brain too gets 'slacker', a new study has found.
Researchers from Newcastle University in the UK collaborated with the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro to investigate the way the human brain folds and how this 'cortical folding' changes with age.
Linking the change in brain folding to the tension on the cerebral cortex - the outer layer of neural tissue in our brains - the team found that as we age, the tension on the cortex appears to decrease.
This effect was more pronounced in individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
The research sheds light on the underlying mechanisms which affect brain folding and could be used in the future to help diagnose brain diseases.
"One of the key features of a mammalian brain is the grooves and folds all over the surface – a bit like a walnut - but until now no-one has been able to measure this folding in a consistent way," said lead author Dr Yujiang Wang of Newcastle University.
"By mapping the brain folding of over 1,000 people, we have shown that our brains fold according to a simple universal law. We also show that a parameter of the law, which is interpreted as the tension on the inside of the cortex, decreases with age.
"In Alzheimer's disease, this effect is observed at an earlier age and is more pronounced. The next step will be to see if there is a way to use the changes in folding as an early indicator of disease," said Wang.
The expansion of the cerebral cortex is the most obvious feature of mammalian brain evolution and is generally accompanied by increasing degrees of folding of the cortical surface.
In the average adult brain, for example, if the cortex of one side - or hemisphere - was unfolded and flattened out it would have a surface area of about 100,000 square millimetre, roughly one and a half times the size of a piece of A4 paper.
Previous research has shown that folding of the cortex across mammalian species follows a universal law - that is, regardless of size and shape, they all fold in the same way.
However, until now there has been no systematic study demonstrating that the same law holds within a species.
"Our study has shown that we can use this same law to study changes in the human brain," said Wang.
"From this, we identified a parameter that decreases with age, which we interpret as changing the tension on the cortical surface. It would be similar to the skin. As we age, the tension drops and the skin starts to slacken.
"It has long been known that the size and thickness of the cortex changes with age but the existence of a general law for folding shows us how to combine these quantities into a single measure of folding that can then be compared between genders, age groups and disease states," said Wang.
The study was published in the journal PNAS.
Courtesy – Deccan Herald